Transpharmation has developed a world-class rodent operant platform that allows testing of NCEs against discrete symptom clusters such as: Motivation, Motor Behaviour, Motor Impulsivity, Choice Impulsivity, Compulsive Behaviour, Drug Discrimination, Attention and Anxiety. The operant testing modality, which includes our standard operant and 5-choice chambers provides the sensitivity to detect subtle yet significant variations in behavioural response. Transpharmation also regularly co-develops customized testing paradigms, providing additional opportunities for sponsors to fully develop the value of their emerging NCEs.