Pharmacokinetic (PK) and Pharmacodynamic (PD) assays are the engine room for Lead Optimisation Drug Discovery.

With our combined years of extensive experience delivering programmes into preclinical development, we understand the need for robust, pharmacologically sensitive, high-throughput, multi-modal in-vivo and ex-vivo endpoints that can be put into context with drug exposure levels.

We can offer almost any dosing route and preclinical species that you might require along with a broad range of behavioural end points and tissue / fluid collection capabilities.

Examples of models we offer:

Behaviour / In-vivo

  • Transgenic animals (rats and mice) to model specific mechanistic targets
  • Temperature (rectal and microchipped)
  • Rotarod
  • 24/7 Circadian Rhythm
  • LPS-induced inflammation (cytokine and chemokine release)
  • Laser Doppler cutaneous blood flow
  • Pharmaco EEG
  • EMG
  • Seizure models
  • LABORAS automated complex behavioural assessment (locomotor activity, feeding, drinking, rearing, wet dog shakes, head twitch, grooming etc.)


  • Systemic drug exposure
  • CNS / peripheral target organ tissue drug exposure
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid, (CSF) drug exposure
  • Ligand Binding
  • Biomarker assessment (RNA and Protein)
  • PBMC stimulation (rodent and human)
  • Blood glucose assessment
  • Clinical Chemistry
  • Neurochemisty